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Dialysis was first described by Thomas Graham in 1854.

This section will discuss various hemodialysis regimens and extracorporeal modalities.

The primary goal of chronic HD vascular access is to provide repeated access to the circulation with minimal complications.

Complications of hemodialysis (HD) access create significant problems for renal practitioners, the healthcare system and especially for individuals living with end stage renal disease.

Many modern dialysis machines offer options for ultrafiltration (UFP) and sodium profiling (or sodium variation system [SVS]).

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